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By Carlton J. H. Hayes

Excerpt: ...Pretender." The Methuen Treaty (1703) used to be additionally positive: it allowed English retailers to promote their manufactures in Portugal with out difficulty; in go back for this concession England diminished the tasks on Portuguese wines, and "Port" supplanted "Burgundy" at the tables of English gents. The Act of Union of 1707 was once no longer negative both, for it proven universal exchange rules, customs, and excise in England and in Scotland. To the only own union among the crowns of britain and Scotland which have been inaugurated (1603) through the 1st of the Stuart monarchs of britain now succeeded below the final of the Stuart sovereigns a company union of the 2 monarchies below the name of the dominion of serious Britain (1707). Sidenote: Accession of the Hanoverians (1714); persisted Decline of Royal energy Upon the loss of life of Anne (1714), the crown handed Footnote: in line with the Act of payment (1701). to her cousin, the son of Sophia of Hanover, George I (1714-1727). the recent king, not able even to talk the English language, less to appreciate the advanced traditions of parliamentary executive, used to be neither capable nor worried to rule, yet used to be content material simply to reign. The company of management, accordingly, was once passed over to a gaggle of ministers who strove not just to thrill their royal grasp yet to keep the good-will of the most important get together in Parliament. Sidenote: upward thrust of the cupboard in view that this tradition, with the numerous customs that have grown up approximately it, has turn into a so much crucial a part of the govt of the uk this present day, and has been copied lately by means of many different international locations, it is very important comprehend its early historical past. Even earlier than the accession of the Tudors, the good Council of nobles and prelates which had prompt and assisted early kings in issues of management had surrendered such a lot of its genuine features to a ranking or so of "Privy Councilors." The Privy Council in flip turned unwieldy,...

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These were the craft gilds. ] Springing into prominence in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the craft gild sometimes, as in Germany, voiced a popular revolt against corrupt and oligarchical merchant gilds, and sometimes most frequently so in England–worked quite harmoniously with the merchant gild, to which its own members belonged. In common with the merchant gild, the craft gild had religious and social aspects, and like the merchant gild it insisted on righteous dealings; but unlike the merchant gild it was composed of men in a single industry, and it controlled in detail the manufacture as well as the marketing of commodities.

Completed to ´ 1913 by Emile Haumant (1914), a brilliant work, of which the portion down to 1877 has been trans. by Leonora B. Lang, 2 vols. (1879); W. R. A. Morfill, Russia , in ”Story of the Nations” Series, and Poland , a companion volume in the same series. See also Jeremiah Curtin, The 34 Mongols: a History (1908). For the Magyars: C. M. Knatchbull-Hugessen, The Political Evolution of the Hungarian Nation , 2 vols. (1908), especially Vol. I, ch. i-iii; A. V´amb´ery, The Story of Hungary (1886) in ”Story of the Nations” Series; Count Julius Andr´assy, The Development of Hungarian Constitutional Liberty , trans.

On France: A. J. Grant, The French Monarchy, 14831789 , 2 vols. (1900), Vol. I, ch. i, ii, brief and general; G. B. Adams, The Growth of the French Nation (1896), ch. viii-x, a suggestive sketch; G. W. , 3 vols. (1894-1899), Vol. I and Vol. II (in part), dry and narrowly political; Lavisse (editor), Histoire de France , Vol. V, Part I (1903), an exhaustive and scholarly study. On Spain and Portugal: E. P. Cheyney, European Background of American History (1904), pp. 60-103; U. R. , 2 vols. (1900), edited by M.

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