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By Dick Leith

A Social heritage of English is the 1st background of the English language to make use of the thoughts, insights and issues of sociolinguistics. Written in a non-technical approach, it takes into consideration standardization, pidginization, bi- and multilingualism, the problems of language upkeep and language loyalty, and linguistic variation.
This re-creation has been absolutely revised. Additions contain: * new fabric approximately 'New Englishes' around the world
* a brand new bankruptcy entitled 'A severe Linguistic historical past of English Texts'
* a dialogue of difficulties thinking about writing a background of English
All phrases and ideas are defined as they're brought, and linguistic examples are selected for his or her accessibility and intelligibility to the overall reader.
It can be of curiosity to scholars of Sociolinguistics, English Language, heritage and Cultural reviews.

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This problem is exacerbated by the habit of many influential commentators to talk about the ‘standard’ as an ideal of usage, restricted to the written medium and inseparably linked to the notion of literary greatness. This pulls the meaning away from any idea of a norm and invests the notion of the standard with the aura of transcendence, so that like the nation, the law and the market it supposedly operates at a level above the merely human. It would be a mistake to dismiss these meanings as ‘unscientific’, as many of them have been present ever since the term ‘standard’ was first applied to the discussion of language in the early eighteenth century.

Contact between the languages occurred at the oral level, in those areas where ordinary English people encountered, in face-to-face interaction, their Danish counterparts. In situations such as this, where the communication of basic information is at a premium, we are likely to find a process similar to pidginisation. Language is reduced to bare essentials, as it is when we send a telegram; and one of the clearest means of achieving this is to delete, or simplify, some of the patterns in our grammar.

By Shakespeare’s time this regional variation in the language of printed literature had all but disappeared, although there have been STANDARDISATION AND WRITING 35 isolated examples since and a reemergence in the industrial north of England in the nineteenth century. The establishment of a national literary norm had crucial repercussions for imaginative literature. In medieval England, there could be no sense of a norm for English usage, for reasons already explained above. Once a norm has been established, at least in the written language, it becomes possible to break it for stylistic purposes—in particular, for representing the speech of people from regions far away or belonging to social groups whose language is supposed to have certain clearly identifiable characteristics.

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