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Download A Study on Catalytic Conversion of Non-Food Biomass into by Mizuho Yabushita PDF

By Mizuho Yabushita

The subject of this thesis is catalytic conversion of non-food, considerable, and renewable biomass reminiscent of cellulose and chitin to chemical compounds. In biorefinery, chemical transformation of polymers to useful compounds has attracted all over the world curiosity for development sustainable societies. First, the present state of affairs of this sizzling examine zone has been summarized good within the common creation of the thesis, which is helping readers to get to grips with this subject. subsequent, the writer explains high-yielding creation of glucose from cellulose by utilizing an alkali-activated carbon as a catalyst, leading to a yield of glucose as excessive as 88%, that is one of many maximum yields ever stated. The characterization of carbon fabrics has indicated that vulnerable acid websites at the catalyst advertise the response, that's markedly various from mentioned catalytic platforms that require powerful acids. furthermore, the 1st catalytic transformation of chitin with retention of N-acetyl teams has been constructed. the mix of mechanocatalytic hydrolysis and thermal solvolysis allows the construction of N-acetylated monomers in strong yields of as much as 70%. The catalytic platforms proven during this thesis are special within the fields of either chemistry and chemical engineering, and their excessive efficiencies can give a contribution to eco-friendly and sustainable chemistry sooner or later. in the meantime, mechanistic reports according to characterization, thermodynamics, kinetics, and version reactions have additionally been played to bare the jobs of catalysts throughout the reactions. the consequences may be beneficial for readers to layout and advance new catalysts and response systems.

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Additional resources for A Study on Catalytic Conversion of Non-Food Biomass into Chemicals: Fusion of Chemical Sciences and Engineering

Sample text

Liu et al. 2 at 448 K [174]. 6) is too high to catalyze hydrolysis of cellulose. The direct attack of water molecule to glycosidic bonds may be more significant [175]. Further works are necessary to scrutinize real active species. Later, γ-Al2O3 support was found to be transformed into boehmite AlO(OH) in hot compressed water, causing the drop of activity in repeated tests [170]. In addition to poor durability, yield of sorbitol needs to be improved. Thus, the development of more active and durable catalysts has been a target.

Hydrolysis of chitin in a concentrated HCl solution (15–36 %) has also afforded GlcNAc in ca. 65 % yield with preserving N-acetyl groups [203]. Intriguingly, the rate constant for hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds is >100 times higher than that of N-acetyl groups at 298–308 K in a 12 M of HCl solution. This large difference in reaction rates contributes to the high-yielding production of GlcNAc from chitin with suppressing deacetylation. However, this system suffers from several drawbacks, including corrosive property of concentrated HCl and a huge amount of acidic waste [9].

Osada et al. applied sub- and supercritical water to decomposition of the crystalline structure of chitin [196]. After supercritical water treatment at 673 K for 2 min, CrI decreased from 90 to 50 %. The d-spacing determined from XRD slightly increased by the treatment, implying that intermolecular hydrogen bonds of chitin were weakened and/or divided. Both the decrease of CrI and increase of dspacing would lead to easy access of catalysts to reaction sites of chitin. They also demonstrated the combination of supercritical water treatment and converge milling [197].

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