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Download A-Z of Modern Europe, 1789-1999 by Martin Polley PDF

By Martin Polley

An A-Z of recent Europe 1789-1999 is a complete dictionary which defines smooth Europe via its very important occasions and folks. It comprises entries on:
* key humans from Napoleon Bonaparte to Hitler
* key political and army events
* influential political, social, cultural and financial theories.
An A-Z of contemporary Europe 1789-1999 bargains available and concise definitions of approximately one thousand separate goods. The publication is cross-referenced and therefore presents linked hyperlinks and connections whereas the appendices comprise crucial additional info. The ebook includes 5 beneficial maps to steer the reader alongside.

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This was clarified by BREZHNEV’S claim that communist countries had the right to intervene in other countries where communism was under threat. The 1970s, however, saw some constructive moves to decrease the tensions. In the FRG, BRANDT’S OSTPOLITIK improved relations between the FRG and the GDR, Poland and the USSR; the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) between the USA 27 and the USSR led to treaties in 1972 and 1979; while multinational talks in Helsinki and Geneva from 1973 until 1975 resulted in statements on human rights and security, and in the formation of the CONFERENCE ON SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE (CSCE).

Under Marx and Engels, however, particularly through the Communist Manifesto of 1848, communism was reshaped as an ideal, ultimate state of human social development which would come about inevitably as a result of classes struggling over power and resources. It was projected to follow a period of proletarian control, and would be characterised by common ownership of all goods and services, and by an end to state control: in this, it shared some ground with both ANARCHISM and SOCIALISM. It differed from these other ideologies in its emphasis upon economic determinism, with all political change being caused by economic forces.

His early post-war posts in local and regional party roles paved the way to his elevation to national politics under STALIN and KHRUSHCHEV, and he joined the party’s Central Committee in 1952. In 1957 he joined the POLITBURO, and became President of the Praesidium in 1960. In 1964, after Khrushchev’s retirement, Brezhnev became the party’s First Secretary, a post he held until his death in 1982. As the USSR’s leader, he oversaw some limited domestic reforms which eased some of the restrictions of his two predecessors’ terms: for example, the government became more tolerant of religion, and some minor individual liberties were introduced.

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