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For example, a functional group may be surrounded by bulky groups that hinder the approach of a reagent and slow down the rate of reaction. This is called as steric shielding. Electronic effects can also influence the rate of a reaction. Neighbouring groups can influence the reactivity of a functional group if they are electron-withdrawing or electron-donating and influence the electronic density within the functional group. Conjugation and aromaticity also effect the reactivity of functional groups.

Amines containing more than one alkyl group attached are named by selecting the longest carbon chain attached to the nitrogen. In the example, that is an ethane chain and so this molecule is an aminoethane (N,N-dimethylaminoethane): Fig. N,N-Dimethylaminoethane. Some simple secondary and tertiary amines have common names: Fig. (a) Dimethylamine; (b) trimethylamine; (c) triethylamine. Thiols and Thioethers For naming thiols we add the suffix-thoil to the name of the parent alkane [Following fig(a).

Alcohols Alcohols or alkanols are named by using the suffix -anol. The general rules discussed earlier are used to name alcohols. Fig. 4-Methyl-2-pentanol. Ethers and Alkyl Halides For the nomenclature for ethers and alkyl halides the functional group is considered to be a substituent of the main alkane chain. The functional group is numbered and named as a substituent: Fig. (a) 1-Chloropropane: (b) 1-methoxypropane. In ethers we have two alkyl groups on either side of the oxygen. The larger alkyl group is the parent alkane.

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