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Download Ammonium Nitrate Explosives for Civil Applications: by Erode G. Mahadevan PDF

By Erode G. Mahadevan

The e-book describes the technology and know-how of formula and production of non-nitroglycerine explosives with ammonium nitrate because the major element. according to the author's adventure of greater than thirty years, it offers an unheard of remedy of 1 of the commercially most vital periods of explosives and accordingly stimulates additional study and improvement efforts within the box of explosives for civil applications.Content:
Chapter 1 type of Explosives (pages 1–3):
Chapter 2 Explosive technology (pages 5–14):
Chapter three Ammonium Nitrate Explosives (pages 15–30):
Chapter four Ammonium Nitrate and AN/FO (pages 31–58):
Chapter five Slurries and Water Gels (pages 59–112):
Chapter 6 Emulsion Explosives (pages 113–155):
Chapter 7 study and improvement (pages 157–162):
Chapter eight useful security in the course of Manufacture of AN Explosives (pages 163–177):
Chapter nine Economics of AN?Based Explosives (pages 179–193):
Chapter 10 present prestige and Concluding comments (pages 195–197):

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Extra resources for Ammonium Nitrate Explosives for Civil Applications: Slurries, Emulsions and Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oils

Sample text

In some instances, the AN liquor with water content of 20% or 7% is removed for supply to manufactures of slurry and emulsion explosives as AN melt which they can directly use to make the oxidizer blend. Historically AN was produced in large commercial quantities in crystalline form till 1955 when prilling process was established. The crystalline AN was mainly used as fertilizers and also in nitroglycerine (NG)-based dynamites as oxidizer and diluents. Use of crystalline AN in NG-based explosives gave rise to a series of explosives called gelatins, which were very popular civil explosives as they were both cap-sensitive, had adequate power, and were reasonably safe for manufacture and handling.

For cap-sensitive explosives, the number 6 detonator is used and for LD non-cap-sensitive explosives pentaerythritol tetranitrate/trinitrotoluene (PETN/TNT) booster is used, the latter being initiated either by a detonator or by a detonating fuse. The diameter of the booster should be as close as possible to the diameter of the cartridge being tested and the weight used is about 10% of the explosive weight. 3. As the reaction proceeds after initiation, it sets off the two arms (probes) of the detonating fuse embedded at a fixed distance in the cartridge.

The variations and inconsistencies observed in the transition temperatures are further compounded by the complex phenomenon of hysteresis observed during cycling (heating and cooling) of AN. This behavior is also dependent on moisture content, rate of heating and cooling, and the period at which the AN remained above or below the transition temperature. Crystallographic studies through X-ray diffraction have given insight into the crystal structure of different phases and pointed out the route by which phase transition temperature can be possibly manipulated.

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