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Download An Extended Entity-Relationship Model: Fundamentals and by Martin Gogolla PDF

By Martin Gogolla

This textual content offers a finished creation to a longer Entity-Relationship version either on a conceptual and on a proper, mathematicallevel. as well as the primitives given by means of the information version the textual content introduces a language for the formula of constraints so one can limit database states to constant ones. The textual content explains an implementation of the method selected within the good judgment programing language PROLOG and discusses during this context the computational strength of the proposedcalculus. The prolonged Entity-Relationship calculus is used to outline the which means of the relational question language SQL. a pleasant function of the procedure is that it turns into attainable to end up language houses on a valid mathematical basis.

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Furthermore, we have the type conversions (iii) and (iv) respecting the semantics of a type construction c. , #[CONSTRUCTION](c)(eo,,~) = e~, holds, then we have the facts s~,t(~,)=e_~t and sin(e_~t)=e_in. (vi) allows the formulation of arbitrary bag-valued terms already presented at the beginning of this chapter. The semantics of terms is often called the evaluation of the terms with respect to a given assignment a of values to the variables. The function sort determines the sort of every term.

22 C H A P T E R 2. ,om). For two distinct constructions Cl,C2 E C O N S T R U C T I O N the following conditions must hold: a. output(el) N output(c2) = 0 b. It is not allowed that connection+(e,e) holds for some e E E N T T Y P E , where connection + is the transitive closure of the relation connection defined by: if ein E input(c) and eout E output(c) for some c E CONSTRUCTION, then connection(ei,~,eo~t) holds. The semantics of an extended Entity-Relationship schema EER(DS) is given by a. a function #[ENTTYPE] E IFUNI such that #[ENTTYPE] : E N T T Y P E -+ IFISETI and 2 E #[ENTTYPE](e) for every e E E N T T Y P E , b.

14 : -+ real, and * : real • real -+ real. t is the only free variable in this term. 11. pdist(center(tgeo(tl)), center(tgeo(t2))) is a term of sort real having the free variables t l and t2. It evaluates to the distance of the towns t l and t l for a given ~. 12. -[ cname(c), pname(head(c)) I (c:COUNTRY) ]- is a term without free variables and of sort bag(record(string, string)), since the variable c is bound by the declaration (c:COUNTRY). This term evaluates (independently of any assignment ~) to the names of all countries together with the names of the heads of these countries.

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