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Download An Introduction to Solid State Physics and Its Applications by Roger James Elliott, Alan Frank Gibson PDF

By Roger James Elliott, Alan Frank Gibson

Elliott and Gibson's vintage creation to strong nation physics.

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Extra resources for An Introduction to Solid State Physics and Its Applications

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This type of reflection, however, can be eliminated by roughening the surface, which renders a metal completely black. You will experience this yourself when you scrub an aluminum pot with some scouring powder and a cloth. The tiny aluminum particles scrubbed off the pot make the cloth totally black. Owing to the continuous energy range for electrons in a metal, an electron that is excited by absorbing a photon loses this extra energy easily, step by step, in small portions, by generating phonons.

V not absorbed. They are either transmitted or reflected by the semiconductor. 2, start losing their energy as quickly as in a metal by stepwise generation of phonons. However, once the electrons have reached the lower edge εC of the conduction band, losing energy in small steps by generating phonons is no longer possible, because there are no states for electrons with a little less energy. Returning to a state in the valence band requires the loss of the gap energy εG in a single step. Possible processes are the simultaneous generation of a large number of phonons or, alternatively, the emission of a photon.

In spite of this, we cannot take advantage of this property of semiconductors because, even though their temperature is lower, in order to avoid the creation of entropy they emit photons with so great a chemical potential that the photon current density emitted toward the Sun has exactly the same magnitude as that obtained from the Sun and no net energy can be transferred to a Carnot engine without the production of entropy. 1 What is a black body? 2 Why does a light-emitting surface of a black body appear equally bright from all viewing angles?

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