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Download Applied Physical Chemistry by C. Heald, A. C. K. Smith (auth.) PDF

By C. Heald, A. C. K. Smith (auth.)

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Sample text

02(g) ~ CO(g) If 28 per cent of the heat generated is lost from the unit, find (i) the ratio of steam to air that makes the unit energetically self-supporting, (ii) the calorific value of the cooled (298 K) gas. (i) Examination of the two reactions, (c) and (d) will show that one is exothermic and the other endothermic. With due allowance for heat losses a balance between the two will produce a constant-temperature system. 89 of reaction (d). 509N 2. For the combustion of this gas, two reactions are irlvolved (e) CO(g) + !

Thus, although the individual values of dq and dw are indefinite, the quantity (dq + dw) has a unique value for a given change in state. 1 that dq = -dw This conclusion, that when work is transformed into heat or heat into work, the amount of heat is always equivalent to the quantity of work is the first law of thermodynamics. 1 Heat absorbed or evolved at constant volume It is now possible to define one of the conditions under which q becomes a definite quantity. Reactions normally do work either by changing the volume of the reacting system against an external pressure, or, less commonly, by producing an electromotive force.

020 g cm- 3 per day and it is desired to find the minimum rate at which cooling water, at an inlet temperature of 291 K, must be pumped through cooling coils to keep the batch temperature below 303 K. ,. 7 kJ. 12 x 10-s per cent by volume per second. 1 X I0- 3 X 10 3 where 0. 1 x 10- 3 are the density in kg m- 3 and molar mass in kg of ethanol respectively. 33 mol s- 1 . 5 kJ s- 1 . 02 kg s- . It should be pointed out that the following assumptions have been made in this calculation: (i) reaction (a) is the only reaction taking place; (ii) the cooling water must be capable of removing all the heat liberated; (iii) fermenting grape juice may be regarded as an infinitely dilute solution of glucose and ethanol; (iv) the value of M-G- for reaction (a) is the same at 303 K as it is at 298 K.

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